Can an 80s computer beat a new one at Chess?! Amiga vs Mac ♟🕹️ 1987 vs 2020

Can an 80s computer beat a new one at Chess?! Amiga vs Mac ♟🕹️ 1987 vs 2020

February 9, 2020 100 By Sebastian Fry


What? I was not expecting that!
Wow. WOW. Yeah. Oh hello, chip dippers. Welcome to
Retro Recipes now. I had a lot of fun with that recent video.
Which is faster Commodore 64 or a MacBook Pro? and the other
day we were watching one of our favorite movies War Games for about the 64th time And of course it has that famous line in there
[Robotic Voice] So then I thought what if we ignored speed
and instead looked at A.I. artificial intelligence yeah, you’ve got a lot of that now, of course
in 1997 IBM’s deep blue computer famously beat
Garry Kasparov at chess The first time a computer had ever beaten
a champion or a dog Unfortunately, Garry was unavailable for my
little rematch video, but what if we could pit a 1987 Commodore Amiga against a modern computer.
Say a MacBook Well… It should be possible to take the moves from
one computer and type them into the other computer. That computer will think it’s the human that
thought up that move, when actually they came from the other machine. In fact, I think it’s gonna be so interesting
that for once chess won’t make you board Get it? Chess board [laughs] King of Comedy! Welcome to Retro Recipes So we’ll get to the big match in just a moment.
But first what about that IBM Deep Blue computer? Well, Kasparov had beaten it 4-2 in 1996, but Deep Blue asked for a rematch. Well,
I mean it didn’t ask itself, IBM did it’s not that smart. Deep Blue was then heavily upgraded and played
Kasparov again in May 1997 Deep Blue won by one game, becoming the
first computer system to defeat a reigning World Chess Champion. Incredibly Kasparov then allegedly accused
IBM of cheating and demanded a rematch. IBM refused and dismantled Deep Blue. It’s not clear why they did that, but I don’t
think it cheated. Even though it foiled the Turing Test, a measure
of whether a human can tell it’s playing a computer or not. It wasn’t really intelligent, not like the
chess players are. Like all chess AI engines it was just following programming. Here’s how computers did it back then … Simply,
the computer progresses down the branches of a thought tree called Minimax. Each branch represents possible future moves
by both sides. It scores each branch and then uses the opening
move of the highest-scoring branch. Now, I mentioned War Games did you know Matthew
Broderick used a modified in 1975 IMSAI 8080 running at a WOPRing 2 megahertz. But you don’t need to use your modem to dial
up to the government anymore to play chess. Chess games are everywhere now, even a Tesla can play your at chess while you
wait at the traffic lights and I just noticed this little WarGames Easter
egg in the Tesla. One of the skill levels is called Joshua,
the human name given to the War Games computer. Play my pawn to there… Hey… Oh c’mon Joshua! Play my Knight to there. Yes! Oh, for goodness sake! You stupid piece
of shh… [Garbage truck sounds] Uh, I was gonna say sheet metal. But the limiting factor even for today’s cars,
uh computers, is that there are 10 ^ 123 possible moves in a chess game. That’s nearly twice the number of atoms in
the universe. As they say in America [very British accent:] “Ain’t not nobody’s
got time for that!” Or something… So the computer essentially
only thinks as deep as three moves ahead. AKA Three Ply like Loo Roll. [Door creaking] [Ladyfractic]: Do
you mean toilet paper? Hey get out of my voiceover booth! [door closing] But anyway, Since Deep Blue or the 1987 Commodore Amiga
a couple of key things have advanced. One, processor speed. This means the computer can explore perhaps
two thousand more branches in the same amount of time. Number two, the search is more efficient today
ignoring predictably unuseful branches. The Amiga would still waste time looking them.
And other things, like better tuned algorithms learned by playing with itself [cough cough] Well, and in theory the Mac will slaughter
the Amiga because it’s faster and it’s AI is smarter and I won’t demand a rematch like Kasp… Karp… Okay, you’re probably wondering why I keep pretending to mispronounce his name Well me and my friend Allyfractic genuinely had trouble with his name and back in 1989 I thought it’d be fun to phone a software shop and mix up Anatoly Karpov and Garry Kasparov When asking them for Kasparov’s Computer game Yes you could literally beat him at his own game Poor guy! But to try to make it super fair for this
gambit, we’ll play itat least three games and each time with different programs We should also try to match the Elo skill
rating of each AI named after Hungarian-American physics professor Arpad Elo. Elo is basically a rating that goes from senior
master right down to class J. I think I’m somewhere near W. So to start with we’ll play the stock chess
app that comes with the Mac versus Battle Chess on the Amiga both around the level of the Class B or C
player. But don’t worry logic would dictate that the
Mac would still win because it could get more thinking done in
the same amount of time. Even with the same elo rating. Well, well… I won’t give you any spoilers just stay tuned. And then we’ll move up to Real Chess 3D, which
has the highest star rating on the App star, store, I mean, vs. Chessmaster 2000 on the Miggy and we’ll
finish with HIARCS Chess Explorer. Which Kaspa… That guy that chess guy said was much better
positionally than Deep Blue. Wow… And we’ll play that against Sargon III on
the Amiga which has beaten a chess master who was rated at 2200 but there would be unfair so we’ll try
to set each game to comparable skill levels and well on its highest skill level the Amiga
will take four days to move one chess piece. Now socially an average chess game of 40 moves
would take it nearly six months to complete. So you’ll forgive me for not using a Commodore
64 or an Amstrad PCW. So we’ll set a time limit of 5 minutes per
move on both sides and now that you’ve got all that info. There’s
only one thing left… How about a nice game of chess? [music] And we are joined by Ladyfractic. Ladyfractic. So you are the aluminium corner again? Ah rose gold aluminium. You, you are the rose
gold corner again that’s easier to spell in British and I’m on the Amiga gonna
be playing Battle Chess, everybody’s favorite chess game. Ladyfractic,
I don’t think has seen it. So let’s boot it up! We’ve hit our first problem with the Mac because
it has to download an update. Bless you or shall I say Chess you? [laughs] While that’s downloading, I’m just going to
load up Battle Chess and assisting us with the adjudication is
Puppyfractic, that’s you right? Yeah. I know… [Ladyfractic]: She’s wishing you good luck [laughs] She never does this… What are you doing? Okay, so we got both the
games cued up and three quick things you need to know The Mac is always gonna be playing from the
top of the board down with the black pieces with the Amiga playing from the bottom of
the board up and I will keep skipping ahead during the waiting phases But you can still check how much time has
elapsed using this handy here clock. Yeah. We have a lot of options here. [flapping] [Ladyfractic] Oh, they’re flapping! [Perifractic]
Yes, the angels bringing us the options. [flapping] So you’re just gonna mirror that on the Mac
and now the Mac plays it’s turn. [Mac LOUDLY]: Pawn d7 to d5. Surprise! Okay, so as long as I don’t get the wrong
piece we should be able to now have both computers playing one another. Pawn E7 to E5. It’s pretty quick isn’t it? The
Amiga? Yeah. D5 takes C4. Uh-huh. So now the Amiga is going
to think I’m really smart. Are you ready for this? Watch this… And now the Amiga gives its response. And for efficiency, I won’t keep showing you
the duplicate moves on the other machine unless they have really interesting animations [Computer] Queen D8 takes D1. [Perifractic]
Ahh… Check! Dissapointing. [Ladyfractic] Oh! She’s got
quite a shimmy. [Perifractic] Sassy pants. [Ladyfractic] That’s a way to do it. [Perifractic]
I wasn’t expecting that. King takes Queen. [Ladyfractic] Wait… Oh!
[Perifractic] Why they hugging? [Ladyfractic] What? Ahh that was violent. Should I laugh at that? [Ladyfractic] That’s
definitely dated. It’s very Okay [Ladyfractic] Okay much less violent
[Perifractic] So civilized. [computer] Knight D8 to C6. So Knights, I’ll give you a little lesson in chess and
Knights can only move in an L shape and they’re the only piece that can jump over other pieces. That’s how I was able to get from behind those
pawns. This horsey [horse]: [snorting] That’s my horse, all right. Come on Knight. This
one doesn’t jump. He doesn’t have a horse. I swear it’s like “Pardon me. Pardon me”.
[Perifractic] Amiga is thinking. Bishop C8 to F5. Bishops can only move diagonally. See look it’s thinking now. [Perifractic]
It’s actually Bruce Forsyth! [computer] Castle Queenside. [Perifractic]
Oh So the castle can only go in straight lines.
Otherwise known as the Rook and it’s the only piece that can switch. [music] [computer] D8 to D7 [Perifractic] I thought
the Mac would have slaughtered the Amiga by now, but they’re actually having an involved, pretty good game of chess. All right. My little pawn has gone forward
to. [Ladyfractic, American accent] Pawn [Perifractic] Pawn. Right? [Ladyfractic] Pawn. [American computer] Pawn F7 to F6. [Perifractic] She’s American
she’s cheating. Is it thinking? [Ladyfractic] No, that was your move. [Perifractic] Oh, I so
busy thinking about pawn… [computer] Pawn G7 takes F6. [Ladyfractic]
Pawn-Chi [Perifractic] Pawn cheese? [laughs] Bishop’s scared. E6 to E7 [computer] Pawn C7 to C6. [Ladyfractic] Don’t
you think it’s taking a little bit longer now. [Perifractic] Yes, it’s It”s still limiting itself to about 20 seconds.
[computer] Bishop F5 takes G4 [fighting] [Ladyfractic, Cockney accent] That’s
not very ladylike.[Perifractic] [laughs] We’re thinking? What if the pawn actually beat the Bishop. It sounds like the beginning of a joke. [computer]
Knight G8 takes F6. [Ladyfractic] Let’s see how a Knight assaults Bishop. [computer]:
[cries] Off with his head! [laughs] [Ladyfractic] okayyy [Perifractic] Sad. Thank goodness for that [computer] Pawn C6 takes D5. [computer] [cries] He hit him in the crotch! [Perifractic] Good knight! Wait. Oh, so I got Check. [Ladyfractic] What? [computer] King C8 to B8. I mean that’s kind of amazing that even if
the Amiga loses the Amiga still got Check against the Mac. The Mac got it much sooner. [Perifractic]
yeah the Mac got it straight away. [Ladyfractic] But the Amiga has been able to elude it the whole time. [computer] D7 to D5 [Perifractic] Yeah Bishop G4 to F3 D5 takes a F4 PCB Way are absolutely terrible at making
chess boards, but if you need some PCBs, we wecommend … we wecommend [Ladyfractic] Okay, Elmer Fudd. [Perifractic]
[laughs] PCB Wayyyy. [Ladyfractic] because as we all know PCB stands for printed
circu– [Perifractic] Playing chess boards You ruined it. I did, I did. If only you could take it back.
Yeah. Okay. Let’s see what you got now Did you see how fast she responded she was “I’m gonna murder you'” D6 to B4 Check. Oh It’s exposed the rook at the top of the board By getting out of the way the rook could now
travel straight down and take the king Actually, very educational for someone like
me that does not play chess Yeah would not have. Reminded me of some techniques
[computer] Knight F6 takes D5 [Perifractic] but not that one So how far can the King move? The King can
only move one space at a time. I’m seeing the end of the game. Yeah. We’ll
see That’s an interesting move I don’t know as
there was much I Mean, there’s thought behind all of this.
I don’t know what I would have achieved D5 to E3 Checkmate! [Boooo] Let’s move it on here See if the Amiga agrees – what if the Amiga found a way out of it. [Ladyfractic] Then I’d be very impressed. So now it’s calculating what its options are. What? [Perifractic] It’s taking the King. [Ladyfractic]
it finishes the game Off with his crown I don’t remember that. Okay. Is your King
gonna get naked. No. I guess he’s already naked. Yes, all I can see is his wood Well, there you go, so probably not huge surprise
the Mac beat the Amiga and Took his clothes off But it took a lot longer than I thought These are both set to default basic Levels and the Amiga even got check against
the Mac at one point. Anyway, well, I think all we can do move on to two different games To see if with more intelligent games on both
sides we get a better result So now we’ve got Real Chess 3D vs. the Chess
Master Mm, and as the graphics aren’t quite so interesting,
although they’re still pretty beautiful I think on the Amiga to speed things along
I’m gonna mute the commentary and just show each individual move from each machine So now over to the Amiga for the opening move [Amiga] I am the chess master. Pretty sex huh? [Ladyfractic] Not bad, looks almost just like this. [Amiga] Check mate, you lose. [Perifractic] Wait, the Amiga?! Yeah We just answered the question can Amiga beat
a modern-day Mac at chess Yes. Yeah, I was not expecting that Wow Wow, we’re gonna start again, we’ll move up
the difficulty just see what happens the macs on normal Yeah, and this is going up to the Amiga’s going
up so we should put this up to number four This can take 60 minutes per move Now chess master had this great feature I have
to show you Called if the boss wanders by [laughs] Guess what this does? Um I’m gonna guess that it flips it to like an
Excel spreadsheet or something. Yep. How did you know? But you have to be working for a real estate
company If you use this. There’s even an option
to show it thinking down that thought tree although unfortunately, it obscures the board Still fascinating to see Right back to Chess? [R2-C4 whistles] Now this stage we’re running out of daylight So we’re going to move the Amiga back to level
one as it seems to be doing fairly well If your Pawn gets to the end it becomes a
Queen oh You are a big boo big big Big doodoo booboo. The Queen is going to F
him up. She gon kill you. Oh, is he trying to get
multiple queens are you kidding? Good tactics Amiga Another queen, oh we’re getting in position
check. Mate in one. Oh Checkmate you lose Don’t say thank God you lost an hour later.
I’m ready to lose. So it is now 2 games 2 to 1 to the Amiga. On default settings or medium on this program on this
program Wow Now chess matches are usually either two four
or six games – with no tie breaker – So let’s do one really quick final game.
The incredible HIARCS Chess Explorer vs. Sargon III on the Amiga and Will set HIARCS ELO rating to 2200 to match
Sargon So it’s interesting to see on the Mac it’s given each one a school graph of what’s the most likely to get the highest score This is so fast, it’s insane this time to
really simplify things Let’s just watch all the moves on one screen.
Just remember Amigas white Mac is black So now I think it’s run out of opening moves
and the database is now using the AI. So it’s scanning down the tree and Looking at all the potential moves and just
above that you’ll see it’s giving the scores. [computer] Check mate! [applause] We’ve got 2 little windows. checkmate I lose Checkmate you lost. That was, that was uh yeah that was a good
game. I can’t deny that I wanted the Amiga to win. But I suppose that would’ve been ridiculous
if the Amiga won this whole match Four games that we’ve played the final score
is 2 games the Amiga two games the Mac which
means it’s a draw. But I’m amazed you know if the Mac is two
thousand times faster than the Amiga the Amiga would have
got a lot less thinking done. Pretty stunning that it managed to win two games out of four Now sure the obvious answer of why it won
is that chess 3d wasn’t as skilled as we thought though We did match the skill levels even moving the
Amiga down to easy at one point and it still won But I do have another theory – in our other
video I explored Wirth’s law and you’ve heard of Moore’s law now I don’t think those are happening here But what about a new law – that AI trained only
with modern data or self play can still be Bamboozled by old data – a sort of AI tunnel
vision, I guess what I mean Is that what if the Amiga is kind of like
the wise old man playing chess in the park? Using dated techniques that the teenage champion
didn’t expect? of course, that’s kind of a romanticized view It may not be true at all but if you’re a chess expert – a chesxpert I’d love to hear your conclusion of why a
2000 times slower computer can still achieve a draw. Tell you one thing that I can’t conclude, chess
was a lot more fun back in the Amiga days He hit him in the crotch! as always thanks for watching subscribe below
and Cheerio. Do you want a nice game of global thermonuclear
war? Yes. [Lady] Battle Chess. Yes. Sorry I’ve got Harry Potter
[Peri] Hairy Potter? Do you say Hairy Potter. That’s his name.
Do it again? [Lady] Harry Potter. [Peri] Say Harry. [Lady] Harry [Peri] say Prince Harry [Lady]
Prince Harry [Peri laughs] Prince Hairy. Harry in American is hairy.
[Lady] Oh because you pronounce the “I” quite– [Peri] There’s no I to pronounce [Lady] There’s no I in hair? [Peri] Hay-ire [laughs] That’s a good southern accent. Hay-ire!